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We have a range of resources for optometrists and GPs, as well as information you may find interesting and useful when thinking about your eye health. Use the dropdown menu to explore our Resources page.


Optometry Practice Resources

-   Cataract Assessment -Patient Impact on Life Questionnaire


-   NZAO Online Shop - order your pamphlets & marketing aids online!


-   Visual Examination for VDU Operators

Many work places require staff members that routinely look at a computer (VDU) screen as a job requirement to undergo an eye examination. The Visual Examination For VDU Operators form can be completed prior to visiting your optometrist. Download the form here >>

Vision Resources


Just as your car needs regular checks to ensure that it is functioning normally, your eyes need examining to ensure that your vision meets the LTSA eyesight standards. Most drivers can reach the standard necessary for safe driving with spectacles or contact lenses ...Read more >>

Visual discomfort when using a computer

Often, people are unaware of existing visual problems that may only come to light when they begin using computers because the demand on the visual system of this work can be very high. ....Read more >>

Good Light Helps Vision

Eyes adapt to different levels of light very well. From the brightest light on a sunny day to the extremely low levels of light at night, we can still see. This pamphlet provides information about glare, the correct positioning of lights and the impact of poor lighting on your vision... Read more >>

How the Eye works

A simple explanation on how the eye works. This document may also be a useful teaching aid in conjunction with the EyeBox project. ... How the Eye works >>

Project - Build a Box Eye    

Build a model to demonstrate how the eye sees things. This is a fun project for children aged 10-14 and maybe even older! ... 'How to build a box eye'  >>

Lighting Advice

Lighting for low vision, general room lighting comes from fittings anchored in the ceiling, and as a result light may be compromised by shadows created. ... Read more >>

Eye Facts or Eye Fiction

It's important to separate facts from fiction, especially when the topic is eyesight. Knowing how to take good care of you eye is ... Read more on 'Eye facts or fiction' >>

Effective Colour Contrast Booklet

How does impaired vision affect colour perception? ... Read about 'Effective Colour Contrast'  >>

How to adjust a Microsoft Windows Computer for people with Low Vision

A guide to adjust Windows XP and Vista for Low Vision. Many of the instructions also apply to more recent MS Operating Systems.    ...Download the booklet >>

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Information Sites

Directory of Health Care and Support Providers  ...A directory of informative medical websites for New Zealand General Practitioners and their patients.

All about vision  ...Useful information about contact lenses, corrective surgery and eye health conditions....A fascinating look at antique optical aids. "billions of people have been empowered by the gift of clearer vision

Antique Spectacles  ...Spectacles paved the way"

Colour Vision Simulator  ...What a person with colour deficient vision may see   

Save Our Sight  ...SOS month has been headed by NZAO since 2002. The campaign aims to raise public awareness of eye health and to reduce preventable vision impairment The Eyecare Trust   ...A British organisation that aims to raise the awareness of all aspects of ocular health

Atlas of Gonioscopy Videos   ...Demonstration of some examination techniques.

What the brain sees!   ....Optical illusions - can you believe your eyes?

More Optical illusions

12 page booklet on AREDS 2 prepared by AOA

Living with Low Vision - This Ministry of Health publication has information about managing daily tasks, help and rehabilitation, and where to go for help for people who have low vision.

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Vision Support Agencies

Albinism Trust   ...Useful support and information about Albinism and issues with eyesight

Glaucoma NZ   ...A charitable trust dedicated to preventing blindness from glaucoma

Retina NZ   ...Providing support to those with retinal degeneration

MD Foundation   ...Macular Degeneration NZ offers information and advice about macular degeneration (also called AMD ARMD or age-related maculopathy)

Royal NZ Foundation of the Blind   ...Providing support for the blind and partially sighted

Red Cross   ...Providing support to the community

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Optometry Journals and Newsletters Online

Primary Eye Care Newsletters   ...Primary Eye Care Newsletter is published by NZAO and circulated to GP's and Primary Health Care providers.

Clinical & Experimental Optometry   ...NZ and Australian Clinical Optometry Journal  - NZAO Members log in to access the full articles online. Go to Member Login>>

Optometric Management   ...A useful journal that is focused on practice management

Optometry Today   ...Online Journal with interesting news from the British optical industry

Review of Optometry   ...Newsy and informative with a link to Online Clinical Education.

American Journal of Ophthalmology   ...Full length articles with a medical focus.

Senior Doc - USA   ...A site dedicated to sharing of professional knowledge for healthcare professionals.

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Professional Associations

American Optometric Assocaition   

British Association of Optometrists

Australian Association 

Canadian Association 

South African Association 

British Contact Lens Association   ...Promoting excellence in contact lens research...

Cornea & Contact Lens Society   ...Representing contact lens practitioners in New Zealand

NZOVRF Funding & Grants   ...The New Zealand Optometric Vision Research Foundation has been established to provide funds for local research and vision care projects. >World Council of Optometrists   ...Advancing the development of eyecare worldwide

Accreditation Organisations

Council of Australia and NZ   ...Information and guidance for overseas trained optometrists 

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Government Sites

Optometry Legislation in NZ  - The Optometrists and Dispensing Opticians Act 1976 and its amendments. 

NZ Registration Board   ...Registration of Optometrists in NZ is conducted by the Optometrists and Opticians Registration Board.

Ministry of Health   ...Providing advice to the Government on the Health of New Zealanders.

NZGO   ...Official Gateway to the NZ Government.

The Minister of Health   ...Minister of Health parliamentary website. Cabinet papers and decisions on Health are posted here. 

POLICE ...NZ Police keep a register of accredited vision examiners. To be included on the police register, optometrists must apply directly to Police Wellness & Safety Department, Phone: 04 474 9533

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Schools of Optometry in Australasia

University of Auckland   ...One university in New Zealand offers the Bachelor of Optometrist (B.Optom) course. 

University of Melbourne  ...The department of Optometry & Vision Science at Melbourne University.

University of New South Wales   ...Sydney's school of optometry.

Queensland Uni Tech   ...School of Optometry.


GP Resources

GP Referral Form

Send your patient to an optometrist for a comprehensive eye examination....

GP – Optometrist Px referral form >>  (MS Word file)
GP - Optometrists Px referral form >> (PDF file)

NZAO Newsletters For GP's

The Primary Eye Care Newsletter is regularly circulated to General Practitioners', it contains interesting case studies and information relevant to a GP's practice. 


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61. Free Eye Checks
Why is this our topic for Issue number 61 you might think? Well, because it is now September, it is Save our Sight month once again, and early detection of eye disease in older people remains an important health issue. Click here to read more >>
60. Comprehensive Eye Care 
If a GP has a patient in need of comprehensive eye health care – who are they going to call? This may not be an issue causing great debate within the GP community but it does merit some consideration when we consider the facts. Click here to read more >>
59. COVID-19 and the Eyes... In this edition of the NZAO Digital TVC  we look at some of the issues that optometrists have been concerned with regarding the SARS-CoV-2 enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that causes COVID-19. Click here to read more >> 58. Visual Perception, Virtual Avatars and Blood Vessel Leakage..For this issue of Primary Eye Care Quarterly we are highlighting some new findings which add to our understanding of visual perception.  Click here to read more >>
57. Save our Sight 2019...Thousands of New Zealanders every year needlessly live with vision problems that affect their everyday lives. Click here to read more >> 56.Is artificial intelligence the future of medicine?  In this issue of Primary Eyecare Quarterly we look at artificial intelligence and machine learning. We also look at how myopia is now the most common ocular disorder worldwide. We question wether retinal alterations can provide an objective biomarker for psychiatric disease and wether uveitis should be considered as the initial presenting complaint of sarcoidosis. Click here to read more >>
55. Research Roundup: Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Optic neuropathy - AMD, Bevacizumab and Mortality - Tear Film Changes in Older Patients - 3D Printing for Customised Spectacles - Presbyopia Worldwide - Orbital Fractures in Children In this issue of Primary Eyecare Quarterly we have put together a summary of interesting research where the concerns of eye health and general practice overlap.  Click here to read more >> 54. Remember September is Save our Sight month. Thousands of New Zealanders every year needlessly live with vision problems that affect their everyday lives. Click here to read more >>
53. Post Concussion Vision Syndrome. The rate of concussion in New Zealand is increasing every year. Click here to read more >> 52. Blue Light - How scared should we be? The body of research on the visible spectrum and particular wavelengths of light is immense and while some effects of exposure are well established others are still being investigated. Read more >>
51. More than 20,000 New Zealanders were overdue for hospital eye appointments last year... While the Save our Sight message for 2017 remains the same, our concerns are highest for people with blinding conditions who are not being followed up in a timely fashion. Read more >> 50. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being used more and more by optometrists as a means to directly assess the cells of the retinal and the axons of the optic nerve Read more >>
49. Low Vision Goes High Tech... Navigation, orientation, and mobility can all be made easier! Read more >> 48. 2 weekly servings of oily fish is associated with a decreased risk of sight-threatening DR. Read more on 'Food, Fats, Weight, Eyes' >>
47. Don't get blindsided by eye disease; early detection is a vital step in avoiding/limiting permanent damage to the eyes. Read more on - 'Save Our Sight 2016' >> 46. Toxoplasmosis; could this be affecting the eyes of your partient? Read more on - 'A common infection; could this be affecting the eyes of your patient? GPQ46' >>
45. Most people think that optometry is all about eyes. Well, this is true at one level but most optometrists will tell you that optometry is about eyes and vision and seeing and perception. In this issue of primary Eyecare Quarterly we have collected a selection of some recent vision research...Read more on - 'Vision - it's more than meets the eye' GPQ45 >> 44. Many people put up with poor vision because they think it is due to age or perhaps they do not even notice that glaucoma, AMD, or diabetes is robbing them of sight until it is too late. ...Read more on - 'Save Our Sight 2015' GPQ44 >>
43. Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment among children in the developed world and according to Auckland Medical Research Foundation affects 3% of people in New Zealand alone... Read more on - 'Amblyopia - New treatments show brain plasticity is alive and well'  GPQ43 >> 42. Keratoconus - Progressive thinning and distortion of the cornea causing reduced vision.... Read more on - 'Keratoconus: causes and treatment options' GPQ42 >>
41. Migrane with aura can present by itself without any headache pain.... Read more on - 'Migrane, visual migrane, and retinal migrane' GPQ41 >> 40. The fact is regular eye examinations can save sight. The sad thing is, around the world, an adult goes blind every five seconds and a child goes blind every minute....Read more on - 'September is Save our Sight month' GPQ40 >>
39. Poor vision can exacerbate and aggravate behavioural problems in dementia. ...Read more on - 'Dementia, eyes, and other related issues' GPQ39 >> 38. Eye diseases are often degenerative and fit the definition of an ongoing, long term or recurring condition that has significant impact on a person’s life....Read more on - 'Eye disease as a chronic condition' GPQ38 >>
37. The notion that healthy eating may be beneficial to eye health is still not commonly recognised. Good diet is essential to eye health and to the health of the visual system....Read more on - 'Healthy Eating, Healthy People; Healthy Eyes' GPQ37 >> 36. The top four causes of visual impairment are uncorrected refractive errors, cataract, glaucoma, and Age related Macular degeneration. The top three causes of blindness are cataract, glaucoma and agerelated macular degeneration. How can a GP help?...Read more on - 'Save Our Sight 2013' GPQ36 >>
35. Many of your patients will find driving at night far more challenging than in daylight...Read more on - 'Night Vision & Driving' GPQ35>> 34. A 60-year-old mail patient presents complaining of a painful, watery and red right eye...Read more on - 'Painful watery red eye' GPQ34 >>
33. Some common disorders of the body that may have ocular findings...Read more on - 'GPs and Eyes'in GPQ33 >> 32. The eye patient benefits from general practice and optometry working together at all stages of disease progression...Read more on - ‘September is Save our Sight month’ in GPQ32 >>
31. A good visual acuity depends both upon appropriate optical focus and the ability to resolve this focus at the retina....Read more on - ‘Do my child’s eyes work properly, Doctor?’ in GPQ31 >> 30. Corneal erosions are perhaps one of the most common and neglected ocular disorders. Misdiagnosis of a scratched cornea is fairly common....Read more on - 'Recurrent Epithelial Erosion—cause of sudden pain and eye irritation' in GPQ30 >>
29. Having regular eye examinations, visiting the dentist, and maintaining functional hearing could all help prevent dementia according to research? - Low vision is a long term chronic condition. Can seeing diabetic patients more often enhance diabetes control?...Read more on -'Taking care of teeth and eyes - Low vison and Diabetes control' in GPQ29 >> 28. Survey shows NZ'rs have poor knowledge of threats to eye health and vision. Awareness & knowledge is critical prerequisite for motivating behaviours....Read more on - 'Survey shows NZ's poor knowledge of threats' in GPQ28 >>
27. The amount of blindness due to cataract, as compared to eye diseases is about 5% in North America. But cataract is a condition of age and studies have demonstrated the increased incidence of cataract with increasing age....Read more on - 'Health of the older person: Cataract' in GPQ27 >> 26. Request an optometrists comprehensive eye examin report. A complete examination of the eyes can provide information about risk and presence of a range of general diseases....Read more on - 'Reducing Blindness-Improving Vision' in GPQ26 >>
25. A 49 year old male patient presents with a sudden painless loss of vision. He has worn glasses since in primary school and is highly myopic. He has not had an ocular examination in the last 10 years as he did not feel he needed one....Read more on - 'Fear of height good for eyes!' in GPQ25  >> 24. Ten key objectives for Save Our Sight month in September 2009....Read more on - 'Healthy People ~ Healthy Eyes' in GPQ24 >>
23. There’s good evidence from around the world that even a mild reduction in vision to less than 6/12 has a significant impact on social isolation and healthy aging....Read more on - 'Seeing well - Being well' in GPQ 23 >> 22. Patient reports loss of vision and also has severe pain in the neck, upper back and arms, worse at night....Read more on - 'Loss of vision, right eye' in GPQ22 >>
21. Save Our Sight - Fast facts for eye health....Read more on - 'SOS Campaign 2008' in GPQ21 >> 20.  A 49 year old patient presented to the optometrist for a routine eye exam with main symptom being presbyopia....Read more on - 'Glaucoma: Optometry case study' in GPQ20 >> 
19. Health of the older person. Blindness from acute angle-closure glaucoma can result in as little as 1 or 2 days....Read more on - 'Glaucoma' in GPQ19 >> 18. Good diet is essential to a healthy visual system. The notion that healthy eating may be beneficial to eye health is still not commonly recognised....Read more on - 'Healthy diet for healthy eyes' in GPQ18 >>
17. Save Our Sight month is held in August every year, to increase awareness of the need for regular eye examinations....Read more on - 'SOS campaign 2006' in GPQ17 >> 16. Some optometrical patients have significant associated systemic disease.... Read more on - 'Broken glasses and much more' in GPQ16 >>
15. Poor vision is far more common in our community than most people realise. A mild reduction in vision significantly impacts health.... Read more on - 'Poor vision is bad for your health' in GPQ15 >> 14. Dry eye conditions affect a significant number of people....Read more on - 'Quick guide to dry eye' in GPQ14 >>
13. The key to managing red eye is making the correct diagnosis in a timely fashion....Read more on - The red eye in GPQ13 >> 12. Epiphora; so diagnosis of the problem is easy, right?...Read more on - 'The watery eye' in GPQ12 >>
11. Sight loss is not a routine part of old age....Read more on - 'Sight loss and old age' in GPQ11 >> 10. Why order an eye test for your patient? Optometrists can assist the GP's diagnosis....Read more on - 'Eye test for your patient' in GPQ10 >>
9. Eye pressure and glaucoma; the relationship is not simple. 3% of people over 35 have vision threatened by glaucoma....Read more on - 'Eye pressure & Glaucoma' in GPQ9 >> 8. Diabetic retinal photo-screening. The Wellington screening model is a world class programme achieving well ahead of targets....Read more on - 'Diabetic retinal screening' in GPQ8 >>
7. Macular Degeneration; what can be done?...Read more on - 'ARMD' in GPQ7 >> 6. Visual Fields analysis alerts GP to cancer progression....Read more on - 'VF analysis alerts GP' in GPQ6 >>
5. The primary care strategy, diabetes and the aging population....Read more on 'Diabetes & aging' in GPQ5 >> 4. Contact lenses and their problems. What sort of CL problems present nowadays?...Read more on - 'Contact lenses & their problems' in GPQ4 >>
3. Some strange eye conditions that patients just might present....Read more on - 'Strange eye conditions' in GPQ3 >> 2. Acquired brain injury and resulting visual problems, although common, are often overlooked during initial treatment....Read more on - 'Brain injury & vision' in GPQ2>>
1. Optometrists can provide GP's with an effective screening programme for any patients being referred....Read more on - 'Optometry and the GP' in GPQ1 >>  



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